Black Nationalism and Black Pride: The Ballot or the Bullet
By Malcolm X
An excerpt from a speech given in Cleveland in April 1964. At this period of his life after Malcolm X (el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz) had broken with Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad, made a pilgrimmage to Mecca, and begun to develop his own movement, the Organization of Afro-American Unity. He was assassinated on February 21, 1965.
Why We Should Teach About the FBI’s War on the Civil Rights Movement
By Ursula Wolfe-Rocca
Though COINTELPRO offers teachers a trove of opportunities to illustrate key concepts, including the rule of law, civil liberties, social protest, and due process, it is completely absent from most mainstream textbooks.
Fists of Freedom
By Dave Zirin
The media—and school curricula—fail to address the context that produced Smith and Carlos’ famous gesture of resistance at the 1968 Olympics: It was the product of what was called “The Revolt of the Black Athlete.”
From Freedom to Liberation: Politics and Pedagogy in Movement Schools
By Daniel Perlstein
What distinguishes the Movement schools from most of public education is not, in the final analysis, the techniques they employed. Rather, at issue is whether curriculum and pedagogy would perpetuate racism and other forms of social inequality or would foster change. There is, then, no Movement approach to education without rebuilding the Movement.
"Felton X" (Bill Russell)
By Josh Ozersky
William (Bill) Felton Russell, a basketball star for the Boston Celtics in the 1960s, was nicknamed “Felton X” because he wouldn’t denounce the Nation of Islam. Most athletes and entertainers are afraid to damage their careers by speaking out against injustice, but still a brave few continue today.
Civil Rights or Human Rights?
By Andrea McEvoy Spero for MLK Research and Education Institute
A lesson to explore how the African American Freedom Struggle, better known as the Civil Rights Movement, was part of a global movement for human rights in the 20th century.
Voices of Black Liberation
By Larry Miller
Students a read speech or popular writing by a leader of the Black liberation movement, write and give their own speech, and have a debate arguing from the perspective of that person.
'What We Want, What We Believe': Teaching with the Black Panthers' Ten Point Program
By Wayne Au
Students read the Black Panther Party's 1972 Ten Point Program to understand the conditions the Panthers were attempting to identify and deal with, then analyze their world today and write their own Ten Point Program for social issues they would like to address.
Asian American Civil Rights Activism: Embracing Identity from the Past and Building Coalitions with the Black Power Movement
By Freda Lin and Alana Murray
What We Want
By Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael)
Separatism−the determination of a particular group of people to resist assimilating to the majority culture−has a long history in the United States. This excerpt from “What we Want” offers an articulate rationale for the notion of an independent Black community.
Recommended books, films, and more for further learning about black power.