International Connections



American Exported Black Nationalism
By Yohuru Williams

This essay explores how SNCC and the Black Panther Party contributed to the concept of a worldwide freedom struggle in the late 1960s and how their efforts were received abroad.



Nicolás Guillén: The Struggle against Two Racisms
By Carmen Gómez García

In this essay, excerpted from a chapter on the history of Cuban social poetry, Gómez García introduces the reader to Guillén’s poetry about racism in the United States. This is an ideal text for classes on poetry, Spanish, 20th-century U.S. history, and Latin American history.



W. E. B. Du Bois to Malcolm X: The Untold History of the Movement to Ban the Bomb
By Vincent Intondi

The Civil Rights Movement is often portrayed as purely domestic phenomena unrelated to foreign affairs, but many African Americans combined civil rights with peace, and thus broadened the Black freedom movement and helped define it in terms of global human rights.



Inside SNCC : International Connections
By Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

Growing up in the 1950s and 1960s, SNCC members were also influenced by the rising tide of liberation movements that followed World War II. As their commitment to the movement increased, they linked their own struggle for civil and human rights at home with anti-colonial struggles in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.



Who Killed Sammy Younge? SNCC, Vietnam, and the Fight for Racial Justice 
By SNCC, 1966

Sammy Younge Jr’s murder prompted the release of SNCC’s powerful statement of protest against the Vietnam War. SNCC saw Younge’s murder as a clear example of the government’s supposed fight for freedom abroad at the same time it denied that freedom to its Black citizens at home.

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Primary document

Vietnam Comic Book
By Julian Bond

A history of the Vietnam War and examples of African American opposition to the war, presented in an easy to read format.


Teaching Activity

Massacre at Tlatelolco, Mexico
By Octavio Madigan Ruiz, Amy Sanders, and Meredith Sommers

A lesson on the Mexican student movement and the October 1968 massacre of hundreds of students.


Teaching Activity

Movers and Movements: Fighting for Social Justice in South Africa
By Brenda Randolph


Teaching Activity

Congo, Coltan, and Cell Phones: A People’s History
By Alison Kysia

More than 5 million people have been killed in Democratic Republic of the Congo since the late 1990s. Just as the bloodshed of the colonial period was financed by highly lucrative natural resources like rubber, the violence today is likewise fueled by natural resources, including coltan, a mineral required for cell phone production. This role play activity allows students to look back at Congo’s history and see the connections between the brutality of colonialism and the contemporary injustice in Congo.


Recommended books, films, and more for further learning about international connections.



Beyond Vietnam
By Martin Luther King, Jr.